Can perilla be cultivated without pollution? Non-polluted cultivation technology of perilla

Perilla is an annual herb with good bactericidal, anti-inflammatory and health effects, mainly used in medicinal, oil, spices and edible. Today, this article mainly introduces the pollution-free cultivation technology of perilla.

1. Soil preparation and fertilization

In the southern region, the cultivation of perilla should be protected by plastic greenhouses. Perilla is warm, moisture-resistant, and resistant to cockroaches, has strong resistance, is adaptable to soil conditions, and grows vigorously in loose and fertile soil. Before applying the soil, the amount of base fertilizer should be determined according to the local soil conditions. Generally, the application amount of base fertilizer per shed (150m2) is 40kg for oil cake, 15kg for superphosphate, and 500kg for soil. After fertilization, the soil is turned deep 25-35 cm, and then the sputum is flattened. The specific width of the kneading surface depends on the width of the greenhouse. The greenhouse with a width of about 5 m is generally made 3 inches, the width of the concrete is 1.2 m, and the width of the groove is 0.4 m.

2, sowing and transplanting

Perilla can produce 2 1 in 1 year, spring sorghum in Jiangnan area is planted in March, and harvested in May-August; autumn rafts are planted in September, and harvested in December-March. Perilla can be broadcast live, but also can be transplanted, but seedling transplanting is more conducive to the growth of perilla, the plant grows neatly and is easy to manage. The seedlings are carried out in a greenhouse, and the seedbed is prepared according to 8%-10% of the planting area, and the seeding amount of the seedbed is 10-14 g/m2. Before the sowing, the seedling bed should be poured with the bottom water, the seeds should be spread evenly on the bed surface, and the thin soil of the seed can not be seen in the first layer, and the seedlings will be germinated after 7-10 days. Generally, the seedlings are 3 times, and the seedling distance is about 3 cm. In order to prevent seedlings from growing into tall feet, attention should be paid to timely ventilation and ventilation. Miao Chang to 2 leaves 1 heart can be transplanted and planted, timely rooting water, the cultivation density is 2000-2500 plants per shed.

3, daily management

3.1 Fertilizer management

Perilla experienced a process from high temperature to low temperature in the greenhouse, and the growth in the early stage was faster, but the weed growth was also faster. Therefore, it is necessary to weed in time and to apply a certain amount of quick-acting fertilizer. When sesame grows 2-3 true leaves, 1.5-2.5 kg of urea is applied to each shed, and 1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution is sprayed twice on the foliage.

3.2 pruning

Perilla is highly branched, and after planting for 20 days, it has grown into a 5 stem section. All leaves and branches below the stem section of the stem should be removed to promote robust growth. Excess axillary buds and small weights are removed as the plants grow, maintaining 6-8 side branches per plant.

3.3 shed film management

According to the weather conditions, the plastic film on both ends of the greenhouse is mainly closed, and it is properly ventilated and ventilated. In case of strong cold weather, the small shed can be covered in the shed, but you should pay attention to ventilation and ventilation at noon on sunny days.

3.4 Pest Control

The pollution-free cultivation of perilla, the prevention and control of pests and diseases should use the comprehensive clothing industry technical measures, combined with biological control and physical control, and minimize the use of chemical pesticides.

The diseases that cause damage to perilla are mainly spot blotch and root rot. It can take timely measures to eliminate the diseased bodies in the shed, reasonably close planting, scientifically regulate temperature and humidity, and other agricultural measures. After the preparation of the ground, the spray of Baokang active (biological) organic fertilizer 300 times solution, 2kg per 667m2, has a good control effect on the disease. When the disease is serious, spot blotch can be sprayed with 70% mancozeb WP 400-500 times or 1:1:200 Bordeaux solution; in the early stage of root rot, use 720 times of 70% thiophanate-methyl WP Liquid, or 75% chlorothalonil 600 times solution, mainly spray the rhizome, spray once every 7-10d, 2-3 times in a row.

The pests that damage the perilla are mainly leafhoppers, aphids, and green worms. Insect pests should be based on physical control. In the shed door and windproof port, insect-proof nets are hanged. Indoor frequency-vibration insecticidal lamps are hanged, and 25 pieces of 30cm × 50cm sticky insect boards are hung every 667m2, which can basically control the occurrence of pests. If the pest is heavy, it can be properly applied to spray high-efficiency, low-toxic, low-residue insecticides.

4, harvest processing

When the leaf diameter above the fifth stem section is more than 6 cm wide, it can be picked, leaving enough functional leaves to allow the perilla to continue to grow. After harvesting, the axillary buds that occurred on the upper stem section were wiped off. At the peak of the harvesting leaves, one pair of leaves can be picked every 3-4 days. As a export commodity, perilla has a harvesting standard of 12 cm or more at the widest point in the middle of the blade, without defects, holes, and lesions. The harvested young leaves should be purchased on the same day and processed on the same day to prevent heat and deterioration and affect the quality of the products. The perilla is harvested from the end of production, and each plant can pick up 100-150 leaves.

5, seed collection

After the harvest of the tender leaves, the remains are then ploughed into the soil and ready for the next season. In order to keep the seed, the original cultivated land with the same plant growth and purple on both sides of the leaf can be selected as the remaining planting area according to the required amount, and the fertilizer management should be continued. It is required to apply less nitrogen fertilizer, increase the application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer, and promote flowering and fruiting. When the perilla seeds are mostly brown and mature, they are harvested once in the morning, transported to the site for drying, threshing and lifting, and the seeds are kept in a cool and dry place.

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