Green onion cultivation technical guidance

First , nursery:

1, sowing time: according to different requirements of the product can be sown in all seasons. Onion is best yield cultivation Autumn sowing (ten days in average temperature at 16.5 ℃ -17 ℃ is appropriate, it is the late October). The climatic conditions in the north and south of the country are different, and the planting time is also different. The best time is determined by the size of the seedlings before wintering. It is easy to pass the spring in the spring of spring, and it is not safe to winter. The standard for pre-winter seedlings is to grow to two leaves and one heart. Spring sowing is around the Ching Ming Festival.

2, finishing the seedbed: the seedbed should choose land that is flat, fertile, close to the water source, and convenient for drainage. Before the whole hoeing, the nursery field should be shallowly ploughed and plucked. Mushi base fertilizer compound fertilizer 50 kg, while Mushi skin Nan Dan 2.5 kg, 0.5 kg carbendazim powder, kill soil pests and pathogens (very important). Long stretch of 20-25 meters, 1 meter wide, 30 cm furrow ridge, the ridge furrow compacted iron level in Qinei hug rake repeatedly, without Ke La.

3. Sowing: Before planting, remove the cover soil from the sputum, then fill the water in the sputum (the irrigation volume must be large). After the water has been infiltrated, mix the seeds with sand and sprinkle it twice in the sputum (sprinkle evenly). Finally, cover the soil, the thickness of the soil is 1.5 cm - 2 cm, the cover soil should be even, the seedlings should be used for seedlings: 1.3 kg, 3 - 5 mu of green onions can be transplanted , and the next morning, the next day, the shovel is used The surface is shallowed to prevent uneven cover.

Second, seedling management:

   1 、After 7 days of autumn sowing , the seedlings will be planted in spring for 8-12 days. The cotyledons will not be straightened before the watering is controlled, so as to avoid the siltation of the board. During the rain, the floor can be cut with light iron and light. When pouring the first water, wait until the cotyledons are straight. Weeding (we can not use herbicides), the seedlings grow to about 2 cm, about to straighten, should be used in time to prevent fungal diseases, usually sprayed every 5 days (mainly used to treat dead root rotten vaccine, virus and gray mold Disease medicine), after the seedling grows to more than 5 cm, according to the ground force, urea can be used to raise the seedlings.

   2 , before the winter, mainly to cultivate strong seedlings, the standard: plant height 8-10 cm, true leaves reach two leaves and one heart, the leaves are green and strong, the base diameter does not exceed 0.3 cm. During the period, according to the humidity of the ground, 1-3 water can be poured , and the frozen water is poured before freezing. The layer of soil is mixed with woody ash or fine-circle fertilizer, and the thickness of the leaf sheath is not obvious.

   3 , after the autumn seedlings are in the spring, the roots, hearts and leaves of the onion sprouts start to sprout, and the sputum will be removed to remove the sundries to prevent the seedlings from reaching the moisturizing, warming and early growth. In the first ten days of March , it is not easy to prematurely, so as to avoid the low temperature affecting the early growth of onion seedlings, and it can be combined with watering to apply 10 kg of urea per acre . Late March to early April, about 30 cm height, thinning 1-2 times, dilute density holding up seedlings from 3-5 cm. Late April to early May, about 50 cm height, onion seedlings Sheng is a long-term, to make fertilizer and water management, proper staging of urea, two ammonia, fertilizer, etc., at least twice as many as three times, each 10- 15 kg, combined with spraying and applying micro-fertilizer 2-3 times. And timely use of drugs to prevent fungal diseases, pay special attention to the control of onion, onion horses and leaf miners. Stop watering 15 days before transplanting and carry out seedlings for stable growth.

Third, transplanting and planting:

1, choose the terrain, good drainage, soil fertile land, the best north-south, enough base fertilizer, fertilizer can be manure Mushi 5000 kg, 100 kg fertilizer, urea, 10 kg, 15 kg of potash, or diamine 30 Kg, or compound fertilizer 50 kg, and then plough to dry the soil, in order to eliminate the source of disease, weeds, improve fertility, and finally according to the groove distance of 80 cm, the ditch depth, width of about 25 cm each ditch.

   2, early planting suitable period, usually in mid-June to early July, before the lifter should be watered once a lifter deeper Root of the Matter, or into the lift, shake off the soil, flat in the first two days, out of disability seedlings and seedling diseases, by seedling size, height, thickness is divided into three, in the case where the foot seedlings, seedlings generally do not three. It is necessary to follow the grading with the seedlings, and transplant them to keep the green onions fresh when transplanted. The transplanting plant spacing is preferably 3-4 cm.

   3 , colonization method:

( 1 ) Dry-planting method: After ditching, the onion seedlings are arranged in sequence on the side of the ditch wall according to a certain plant spacing, and the onion leaves are flat against the ditch wall, and then the soil is used for bucking. It is advisable to bury the soil deep and not to bury the heart. Or use a shovel to plant at a certain distance, and then step on it. After planting, you should pour water with it. It is best not to get rid of it.

( 2 ) Hydroponics: The selected seedlings are placed one meter on the back ridge, evenly placed, and the water is first watered in the ditch. After the underwater seepage, one person is placed on the back of the ridge every 8-10 meters. When cutting, use peeled branches to make a plug, the top is a "v" fork, use the left hand to take the seedlings, the right hand to take the stick, use the fork to hold the onion seedlings, the soil at the bottom of the ditch is wet, and the onion is straight. Plug in. Different grades of seedlings should be planted in different plots or shards, not tall and juxtaposed, uneven, for management.

Fourth, post-plant management:

After transplanting, it is in the hot season, high temperature and rain, generally do not water, rain and rain will lead to rotten roots and dead seedlings, pay attention to timely drainage. In case of high temperature and drought, watering should be cooled to promote growth. With the continuous light blue long stretch should be earth, fertilizer, earth last 70-80 cm high ridge, not buried when the leaf earth. Topdressing and soil cultivation should be carried out at the same time. The first time should start from Liqiu, and the farmer should apply 5,000 kg of fertilizer and 10-15 kg of urea . The second topdressing was carried out at the summer, with 15-20 kg of urea and 50 kg of cake fertilizer . The third top dressing is in Bailu. At this time, the scallions enter the expansion period. The management of fertilizer and water is the key. You can apply 1000 kg of manure and urine , 15 kg of urea , 50 kg of phosphate fertilizer , 5-10 kg of potassium fertilizer , and finally watering. The second top dressing is carried out in the autumnal period, and 10-15 kg of urea is applied to the soil, and the soil is watered. Spraying compound micro-fertilizer before and after Bailu , usually spray once every 5-7 days, even spraying 2-3 times, the effect of increasing yield is obvious.

V. Harvest and storage:

Before and after the beginning of winter, onion has to be received considerable planing, the plane close to a bundle of 15 kg, on the cold-ventilated place, 5--6 line is tied, the line between the left channel 50 cm, in case of high temperatures, drying to unbundling, It is afraid of heat during storage, not afraid of cold, and should be protected from rain.

6. Main pests and diseases:

   1. Leaf miner: It mainly harms the leaves, and the larvae sneak into the skin of the mesophyll, leaving the epidermis path, which is white-lined due to chlorosis.

   2 , onion horses: mainly harm the leaves, sucking the leaves to form white spots, in severe cases, the whole leaves are grayish white due to chlorosis.

   3 , verdure: mainly in the underground hazard onion, stem and root, causing stem rot and leaves withered, resulting in lack of seedlings.

   4 , green onion purple spot disease: harm green leaves, the lesions gradually expanded from small white spots to 3-5 cm, a fusiform or jujube nucleus, the largest lesion length of 6-7 cm, slightly concave dark purple, so called purple spot disease .

   5 , green onion downy mildew: the diseased plant twisted deformed dwarf, there is a large yellow-white, oval-shaped lesions like water-immersed, leaves drooping and dry.

   6 , scallion rust: commonly known as red peony, is a devastating disease in the green onion producing areas. The lesions occur on the surface of tubular leaves and stems. They are initially round, elliptical or spindle-shaped. They stand upright in the direction of the veins, and the color dark yellow gradually turns into orange-brown, bulging, scattered, and spot sizes. The diseased plants are yellow, dry, and even fall, causing a reduction in production.

The above planting experience is for reference only, and each region should be managed in conjunction with local planting experience and climatic conditions.





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