Winter and spring shed dishes are important for high-yield and strict water and fertilizer

The weather is dry in winter and spring, and the greenhouse vegetable production environment is relatively closed, which is easy to cause pests and diseases, and it is prone to pesticide abuse. At the same time, the temperature in winter and spring is low, the light is weak, and the decomposition rate of pesticide residues on vegetables is slowed down, which may lead to excessive pesticide residue and affect the quality and safety of vegetables. Winter and spring vegetable production management should be strengthened to ensure the supply of quality and safe vegetables.

First, pay attention to fertilization management

1. Emphasis on the application of organic fertilizer: In areas where greenhouse vegetable cultivation area is developing rapidly, many new vegetable fields should pay more attention to the application of organic fertilizer. Only when a large amount of organic fertilizer is mixed into the soil, the soil properties of the root layer are improved, the structure is good, and the cushioning performance is beneficial to the growth of vegetable roots, improve the water retention and fertilizer capacity of the soil, and reduce the nutrient loss and increase caused by frequent irrigation. Fertilizer utilization rate. The amount of organic fertilizer applied should not be small, and the general dosage is 5-10 cubic meters per mu. The type of organic fertilizer should also be emphasized. For example, common chicken manure contains a large amount of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients, but the proportion of carbon and nitrogen is narrow. The straw compost has less phosphorus and nitrogen content, and the ratio of carbon to nitrogen is wider. If the two are mixed, it is good. A large amount of mixed organic fertilizer can be used to provide nutrients for vegetables and soil improvement in a comprehensive and smooth manner, and the effect will be more obvious.

2, the use of bio-organic inorganic compound fertilizer: use it as a base fertilizer, nutrient comprehensive, long-lasting fertility, play fast fertilizer effect; use it as top dressing, fast fertilizer effect, significant effect, is a compound fertilizer that is ideal for vegetable fields. 120 kg per mu is used as the base fertilizer. When the vegetables are planted, they are applied or ditched; 40 kg per mu is used as top dressing, shallow ditch is applied, and the soil is filled after burying.

3, smart gas fertilizer: greenhouse production of vegetables, basically in a closed condition, low carbon dioxide content in the shed, so that photosynthesis is inhibited, it is necessary to increase carbon dioxide. Tests have shown that cucumber carbon dioxide production can increase production by more than 35%. The leafy vegetables are preferably applied with carbon dioxide in the early stage of growth, and the melons and fruits should be applied from the beginning of flowering. Generally, the carbon dioxide top dressing is carried out at 9-11 am on a sunny day. Carbonammonium + sulfuric acid, or baking soda + sulfuric acid can be used to produce carbon dioxide after mixing, so that the carbon dioxide content in the shed reaches 1000 mg/kg. Do not ventilate when applying carbon dioxide. Appropriate ventilation after 1.5-2 hours of application. If carbon dioxide solid particle gas fertilizer is applied, 40 kg per acre is required, which can be directly applied or buried in the surface, and the effective period can be more than 45 days.

4, base fertilizer and fertilizer application: base fertilizer should be applied deep. On the basis of organic fertilizer, the appropriate amount of ternary compound fertilizer is applied. The ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in compound fertilizer should be moderate. Do not highlight nitrogen fertilizer. Even if organic fertilizer is not applied, do not choose high-nitrogen compound fertilizer, because high nitrogen will not only make the seedlings weak, but also may cause tomato umbilical rot. And other symptoms. In addition to the compound fertilizer, a single type of nitrogen fertilizer can be used to add calcium and potassium sulfate or potassium chloride. Calcium magnesium phosphate can be used in the slightly acidic soil area, which is better than other phosphate fertilizers.

5. Supplementing trace elements: Pay attention to the supplement of medium and trace element fertilizers, because the demand for nutrients such as calcium, magnesium and boron is relatively large, especially in addition to the common tomato “umbilical rot”, the incidence of cracked fruit in recent years. It is also becoming more and more serious, and vegetables in greenhouses are prone to physiological diseases such as cracked fruit and soft rot, which affect the quality of products. Therefore, it is feasible to properly apply medium and trace element fertilizers in the middle and late stages of vegetable growth. The nutrients are mainly selected from calcium, boron, magnesium and zinc. According to the difference of the degree of deficiency, the different methods of root dressing or soil application are adopted respectively. The fertilizer type can be selected as single type or compound type, but do not choose the ten full complement type. Such fertilizer is poorly targeted and the effect is not obvious. The fertilizer dosage form can be liquid or solid.

6. Supplementing nutrients while collecting and harvesting: The harvesting period of fruit and vegetables is long, and it is necessary to supplement the nutrients while harvesting, in order to meet the needs of continuous flowering results. Therefore, topdressing is also very important. The principle of applying a small amount of topdressing should be based on nitrogen and potassium. Nitrogen does not exceed 5 kg each time, and the fertilizer and water are combined to achieve integration. During the topdressing period, the first ear-fruit-expanding period of the fruit-producing fertilizer, the second and third-ear fruit-expanding period of the strong fruit fertilizer; after entering the fruit-bearing period, the roots weakened and the ability to absorb fertilizer decreased, not only the soil application of nitrogen and potassium fertilizer, but also The water-soluble fertilizer of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, calcium nitrate or calcium chloride, borax and the like is sprayed by the external top dressing to ensure the strong growth of the fruit in the later period, thereby reducing the occurrence of physiological diseases and improving the quality of the fruit.

Second, the water management look at the day to see seedlings

In the greenhouse, the seedlings need seedlings in the seedling stage, and the topsoil can promote the roots to be tied down. Therefore, the irrigation should be less, the water control should stabilize the growth rate, the seedlings are not long, and the seedlings can be properly ventilated in good weather to cultivate strong seedlings. After the fruiting period, irrigation is very important. Every irrigation time needs to look at the sky. On cloudy days, it does not water. The cold current attacks do not water, because irrigation can significantly reduce soil temperature, affecting the growth of vegetables and the release of soil nutrients. In the same day, it is necessary to fill the water before the sun comes out. In the result period, irrigation should generally be synchronized with topdressing to achieve water and fertilizer integration.

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